There have been conflicting reports about the hazardous materials thrown by some Gaza protesters on IDF soldiers and Israeli police. Were acids thrown? Don’t know. Media reports of acid attacks can raise fears among security personnel and, if wrong, lead to unwarranted reactions and accusations. (See Treppenwitz for an impassioned statement on this point.) Many acids are highly corrosive and can burn skin, disfigure and cause serious harm (e.g., eyes, lungs). In the heat of the moment, it’s not surprising that exposed individuals and medical staff might mistake other material(s) for acids.
Leaving aside acids, I would be concerned about the other hazardous materials reportedly thrown by the Gaza protesters. Paint thinners, cleaning fluids, gasoline, caustic (alkaline) and other solvents, and paint itself, can be harmful even in cases of acute (short-term) exposure. The eyes are very vulnerable. So are the lungs and nasal passages. Dermal exposures can also be problematic. Immediate health effects may vary depending on the individual, because people differ in their biochemistries and pre-existing conditions. In addition, some people develop skin and other chronic conditions (e.g., “chemical sensitivity”) even from acute exposures. Of course, Israeli soldiers and police are in good shape and probably won’t be hurt if merely splattered with paint.
In recent daf yomi reading, the Talmud shows concern about the eyes and the difficulty of health care for the eyes (108b-109a bShabbat). There's also a Talmudic analogue to chemical sensitivity in the case of the istinis (e.g., Rav Yosef, see Bava Batra 22b w/Tosafot).
Jewish law (halakhah) offers viable grounds for civil disobedience on the Gaza withdrawal. However, by throwing hazardous materials at soldiers and police, the Gaza protesters have diluted the halakhic justification for their cause.
Nachamu, nachamu... may our people be comforted,
N.B. Soldiers, protesters, and journalists may also have been harmed by the burning of tires and building materials. To date, I have not read about any complaints about the inhalation of smoke and pollutants.
PS The mainstream media continues to report that acid was thrown in at least one incident. They seem to be relying on IDF sources. The IDF claim about acid has been harshly criticized (I don't vouch for this link).